Московский экономический журнал 3/2022


Научная статья

Original article

УДК. 338.5

doi: 10.55186/2413046X_2022_7_3_148



Сазонова Марина Владимировна, старший преподаватель кафедры менеджмента и маркетинга высокотехнологичных отраслей промышленности Московского авиационного института (национального исследовательского университета); e-mail: Pmenmai@yandex.ru

Sazonova Marina V., Senior Lecturer, Department of Management and Marketing of High-Tech Industries, Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University); e-mail: Pmenmai@yandex.ru

Аннотация. Статья посвящена процессу разработки многокомпонентной системы применяющейся для автоматизированного проектирования технологических процессов изготовления изделий производимых на высокотехнологичных предприятиях. Областью исследования в статье выступает сфера технологической автоматизации и подготовки производства, применяющиеся для разработки технологического процесса изготовления авиационных изделий. В рамках проведенного исследования, авторами предлагается алгоритм анализа трехмерной модели изделия с целью правильного определения и последующей формализации ее основных технологических параметров в системе Siemens NX. Дискретным элементов рассматриваемой детали является конструктивный элемент, который представляет собой основу необходимую для выбора процесса изготовления изделия в целом. В статье детально описывается содержательная часть функциональной структуры разрабатываемой системы, которая используется для определения будущего маршрута изготовления изделия, с учетом принятия во внимание технологических и производственных данных, которые подробным образом были систематизированы в соответствующей базе данных. Определен практический результат от внедрения разрабатываемой системы, который заключается в оптимизации процессов технологического цикла подготовки выпуска изделий для передовой авиационной техники.

Abstract. The article is dedicated to the process of developing a multi-component system, which is used for automatized projecting technological processes of developing products, made on the high-technological enterprises. In terms of made research, the authors suggest an algorithm of analysis of the three-dimensional product’s model for right determination and further formalization of its main technological parameters in the system Siemens NX. The article has a content part of the developed system’s functional structure in details, which is used for determine future route of creation the product, taking into consideration technological and production data, which have been systematized in a detailed way in the relevant database. The practical result from implementation of the developed system, which consists of optimizing processes of technological preparation of products’ release cycle for advanced aviation techniques, was determined.

Ключевые слова: автоматизированные системы проектирования, технологические инновации, цифровые модели, организация производственных процессов предприятия

Keywords: automatized design systems; digital models; organization of enterprise production processes; technological innovations


Nowadays modern markets are in terms of hard competition that is why high-technological enterprises have a hard task, which includes creation a special integrated informative sphere necessary for development different products. Technological process (TP) of product’s development must start with works made by technologists, who work in special technological part of the enterprise, on further technology of the product, which projection is only planned. The constructor must develop the further product’s digital model. The base for building the further informative model is different data, received from product’s digital model. In the process of agreement, it will be used by the technologists of the enterprise for thorough testing and analysis of its technology. The next step will be receiving of estimation about its production possibility on the available production powers in the enterprise. Creation of the automatized projection system allows to a certain degree increase and to optimize the transition process among the key stages of products’ developing [1, p.30]:

  • it will optimize the projecting process;
  • it will increase the technological control;
  • it will easy the usage of ready three-dimensional models of the developed products.

The purpose of the work is to reduce labor costs and the development time of TP for the manufacture of parts and assembly units of aviation equipment (AE) using relations between objects of the production environment using a decision support system (self-training program for developing TP) based on data approved by TP. The developed automated system for the development of technological processes (ASDTP) is a link from design models to technological ones, i.e. enables a technologist to detect technological combinations of structural forms in a three-dimensional model of a product and to develop an enlarged route for manufacturing a product in accordance with technological recommendations and standard TP in an interactive mode. At the same time, the system takes into account the manufacturability of the product design, and also allows the technologist to develop TP with the fulfillment of the given initial data (at a given cost, given functionality, minimum weight, etc.), as well as taking into account the technological capabilities of the enterprise [2, p.60]. The creation of an integrated information environment will allow the transition from three-dimensional models of products to their digital models, which, along with geometric ones, will contain other types of information about the product. The use of such mockups together with data on the design and technological features of a particular type of product will make it possible to approach the use of configuration management technology for products with complex functionality, products manufactured in many versions, including those for specific customer requirements [3, p.1960].

Literature Review

Development of a unique integrated informative digital sphere will give the enterprise an opportunity to fully come from existent three-dimensional products’ models to their complete digital analogues, which will contain not only geometrical information of the product, but its other types. The main idea of such project is the necessity to formalize knowledge of technologist on a special level in order to create universal system of acceptance and support of the decisions on its structural basis. Such system must allow to a certain degree lower the amount of mistakes on the level of making product’s technological control, during its launch to the enterprise, but also reduce the following level of production costs by analyzing the row of technological decisions and the further choice, which is optimal by the number of technological operations it contains at the same time. The suggested project has high flexibility in settings, and also the ability of its usage practically on any modern machine-building enterprises [4, p. 1354]. The scientific novelty in this case concludes in using multilateral product’s analysis on the basis of its full image in three-dimensional way, taking into consideration technological possibilities that were put in it and production basis of the enterprise.

The suggested technology is based on the fact that each separated technological object, for example equipment or tool has a certain level of productive connection with the product which is in projecting. The usage of such working on and further analysis of data scheme will allow organizing an operative development from the needed data, which will optimize time of creation TP and will give the opportunity to get necessary level of processes’ automatization. It is necessary to mention that the main advantage of the system will be usage of a special intellectual module. We consider the main advantages of the suggested technology of development modern high-technological processes [5, p. 60]:

  • usage of automatized system NX for analysis and estimation of different parameters of three-dimensional model;
  • optimization of the developed TP, on the base of using special intellectual module, which system base is are made by experts’ knowledge;
  • ability of using special technological data from Product Lifecycle Management Teamcenter (PLM Teamcenter).

The most famous nowadays is PLM system, which includes Teamcenter. It effectively replaces the used on the enterprises before systems of automatized management of production processes. The majority of domestic high-technological enterprises actively use Teamcenter as a unique platform, which contains a very useful number of special tools, which are rather convenient for constructors and technologists. A company Siemens PLM software holds leading positions in the sphere of development PLM systems, which allow making not only logical, but also effective constructive decisions on each stage of life cycle [6, p. 38].

The main features of the Siemens NX system are:

  • hybrid modeling package that provides the user with a complete set of functions for working with a solid, surface or wireframe model, based on a fully associative, parametric construction tree;
  • powerful visualization, animation and prototyping tools;
  • ample opportunities for creating and managing large assemblies containing tens and hundreds of thousands of components. With their help, we can build a complete electronic model of such complex products as a car, airplane or aircraft engine high-speed processing modules for all types of equipment, showing their high efficiency in real production conditions;
  • engineering analysis modules based on the built-in solvers of such well-known packages as MSC.Nastran, MSC.Adams allow evaluating various scenarios of the behavior of the designed structures, as well as the study of such types of problems as linear statistics, equilibrium heat transfer, buckling, natural frequency analysis, kinematic analysis and simulation of almost any 3D mechanism, etc. Most popular engineering analysis packages have direct interfaces [7, p. 56];
  • open, powerful programming interface enables developing own application software that will be fully integrated into Siemens NX.

The initial stage of preparation of control programs for machining is the analysis of technical specifications for the development and three-dimensional solid assembly of the unit structure (Figure 1), made in Siemens NX system.

Theoretical Basis

To collect data on the cost of software licenses, from official portals of manufacturers and official requests for product prices to software vendors as of the end of 2020 were used. Data on the cost of 3D printers and other products was collected by analyzing the cost of standard representatives according to predefined criteria (for example, the volume of the printing area) from the most popular Internet suppliers by analyzing prices for different regions of the world and determining the average cost. The choice of courses for the program and its structure was determined by expert survey of representatives of aerospace enterprises and university teachers working on training schoolchildren at Moscow Aviation Institute (sample of 50 people), based on an analysis of publications on STEM training and working materials on CDIO initiative [8, p. 86].

The analysis of the effectiveness of training under the program was carried out on the basis of an analysis of the admission of schoolchildren to leading universities in Moscow based on the results of the implementation of individual courses of the program in online format during 2020. If there is no 3D model of the part, they resort to building it according to the existing drawings and standards, using the Siemens NX «Modeling» module, 3D hybrid modeling system that provides the engineer with a wide range of necessary tools for working with a solid, surface and wireframe model. All solid and surface functions are reflected in a fully associative and parametric construction tree. The combination of flexible parameterization, assembly organization structure and WAVE technology in Siemens NX system makes it possible to implement the process of parallel product design at CAD / CAE / CAM systems level. The mechanism for managing the associative relation between geometric models makes it possible to combine conceptual design and detailed design in such a way that changes at the conceptual level are automatically reflected at the level of not only individual parts, but also technological models [9, p. 37]. The associative relation between the original parametric model and the generated toolpath makes the process of updating the latter, if necessary, quick and easy.

Trajectory control in Siemens NX environment is carried out using a special visualization function that allows observing the tool as it moves along the workpiece. Three viewing modes are available: playback, dynamic material deletion and static deletion. The resulting toolpath can be edited in graphic or text mode, after which we can view the changes in the control program for the entire path or only in the selected area, changing the speed and direction of visualization.

The use of the Siemens NX system in combination with additional individual modules in the development of control programs for machining on machines with computer numerical control (CNC) can greatly reduce the time required for a programmer to generate a program code; improve the quality of the products obtained and reduce the percentage of defects in production; combine the work on the design of a 3D model, its processing and control, as well as the preparation of design and technological documentation. The process of development of the automatized projection system can be separated in a row of main stages [10, p. 14].

First Stage

Creation of a special methodology necessary for an effective formation the route of development the machine-building details, on the basis of taking into account data, received from created three-dimensional product’s model. For realization of this stage it is necessary to do the following:

  • develop a special methodology and a program module, which is necessary for identification of the three-dimensional model of the developed product identification;
  • develop constructive and technological classifications, which are necessary for basic objects, which come into the production sphere; it can be different details and constructive elements for example;
  • develop special methodology, which is aimed to forming a further route of creation the product by automatized technology [11, p. 812].

Second Stage

Creation of a multi-component structural base of database. Created base of database is essential for organizing an effective work of the whole programmed complex. In the developed complex must be added requirements, which are connected to TP of production preparing. For realization of this stage it is necessary to:

  • realize projecting of the database structure, which come into the automatized production system;
  • develop a methodology allowing to form a basic set of rules in the working database;
  • develop a special programmed module allowing to form the rules in a special database.

Third Stage

Start developing a program module, which allows introduce TP of developing details, using larger way. The process of development must happen on the basis of Computer Aid Design (CAD) model with using the given functions of self-studying. For realization of this stage it is necessary to do the following:

  • to work with drawings, especially given in a three-dimensional way;
  • to make an analysis of technical documentation of the developed product;
  • to give an access to receiving different reference information.

The developed automatized system of technological and production processes must solve the following production tasks [12, p. 86]:

  1. Usage and cribbing:
  • finding and further usage of different unique technological decisions;
  • development of special routes of movement inside the shops;
  • usage of special classifications of productive objects.
  1. Development and further rationing of TP:
  • preparation of special technological documents;
  • usage of special program modules.
  1. Choice of the route of product’s development:
  • usage of the methodology allowing to optimize a future technological route
  1. Formed final TP.

Materials and Methods

Economic effect received from the usage of integrated system of productions’ technological preparation is concluded in increasing the quality level of production process, what actually gives a positive effect on the quality of made products and their level of competitiveness. It is necessary to mention that at the same time there happens lowering of the costs’ level, which are for removing a significant amount of mistakes in the projects works’ sphere, and also optimizes a temporary fund necessary for preparation production processes’ organization.  The process of development components, which come into the program module of formation an enlarged technological details’ production process must happen in the basis of using a special CAD model with engaging self-learning mechanisms.  The main tasks, which were defined during making the project are represented in Figure 2.

The main aspects to consider when choosing CAD system are [13, p. 198]:

  • degree of coverage of the tasks solved at the enterprise when designing the production of products (complexity of the designed products, dimension of assembly units (number of components in an assembly unit), estimated manufacturing accuracy, need to calculate strength, mass-inertial characteristics, need for calculations in CAE system, design requirements tooling, etc.);
  • CAD systems used at allied enterprises, with which joint design and production of components is carried out;
  • degree of integration with CAM systems that work with the existing technological equipment at the enterprise;
  • degree of integration with the PDM system most suitable for the enterprise;
  • cost of CAD system with the necessary set of additional modules and libraries, taking into account the cost of ownership (technical support, updates, cost of scaling up to full design capacity).

The developed multi-component system of automatized projecting of production and TP must include the following subsystem:

  1. Subsystem of developed products’ analysis. It is necessary for making the procedures of recognizing different graphical objects because of coming out of a special geometry of contoured lines at recognized at this moment form and the following compare to the database. Nowadays for this goal there can be used modern CAD systems or Computer Aid Engineering (CAE) systems, which fully allow showing structural specialities of the made product.

Procedure of products’ definition includes a row of stages [14, p. 290]:

  • identification of the parameters meanings, which come to each different constructive element;
  • defining of the availability of connections and possible relations;
  • making classification works with the goal of creation elements’ grouped by their constructive data, for example type of elements’ structured, detailed, etc.;
  • making a procedure of comparing the given constructive element with prototype;
  • making a cycle of works for representing the products’ structure, taking into consideration expert part.

In existent nowadays systems, for example such as Siemens NX, where structural components of the model are different form elements, among which there is a bulevy connection, which comes as operations (crossings, differences and associations).

where, Fi are the hardcore form elements.

The amount of coming in data can be shown the cortege of the following type:

where, FCE is the defined function, which is made by a developed constructive element;

D is the defined amount, which consists of used parameters of constructed elements, with the conditions that every j constructive element form the given technological decisions must not have more than two same parameters:

where m is the given amount of constructive elements in developed technological decision;

p is the given amount of parameters in studies constructive element;

Dt are the defined technological parameters in developed constructive element on the enterprise, for example material, quality of the surface of regime of cutting treatment.

If there is a necessity of creating a constructive element in developed technological decision, taking into consideration the maximum meaning of integral weight, will be the most rational (R) from the point of this constructive element production process:

Then the left elements from the examined amount it will be possible to streamline, while following the next conditions:

With the goal of a comfort mark of the given weight results (TD) there can be a possibility of leading to the most optimal weight. Consequently, weight of the most optimal (TD) will be equal to 1, which means that weights of the left decisions will be on the interval from 0 to 1.

2. Subsystem of the firmed experts’ rules work. Such system fully gives an opportunity to enter different expert knowledge, criteria, which include mechanisms and concepts of objects’ connection. This system allows forming special rules of production type, necessary for the connection analysis inside the production chain. An undoubtable advantage of this subsystem is that it can completely replace the work of technological expert. The output machine, built on the subsystem work in developing different expert rules will give a possibility of forming TP in completely automatized regime for an aviation product, made in the enterprise, and also receive diverse contact information about the expediency of the made choice out of the majority of choices. Consequently, technological decision in the database will be introduced the following way:

where, Xk is some objective sphere of technological decision, for example production subdivision or workshop.

where, IDT is a specially made identifying number, necessary for organization of keeping technological decision in database.

Composition of constructive elements:

where, IDCE is a specially made identifying number of keeping knowledge about constructive element in the database;

O is an essential number of technological operations, connected with the process of creating a constructive element, which is defined by the following way:

where, IDo is a specially made identifying number for keeping information in the database about different technological operations, connected with creation constructive elements.

We form the rules, which are necessary for the choice of effective technological decisions:

Consequently, created products are only a part of standard decisions of technological character, shown in appropriate database:

where, Ti is the standard technological decision.

In the result such approach is rather comfortable, if it is necessary to solve the task, connected with the search of ineffective production of constructive products’ parts, because while its usage technologist get a defined level of access to the chosen product, with the goal of its examination and the following analysis, on the basis of choosing appropriate tree knot.

  1. Subsystem of projecting technological route of creating details. Realizes formation of chains with hard connection among component:
  • connection chains of components inside the enterprise;
  • connection chains among technological operations;
  • connection chains among technological equipment, etc.

After the procedure of defining the beginning data module, the main task of which is to form the route, must form a defined request to the database for making decision choice from the majority of technological decisions that completely satisfy the source data. The next step will be usage of the integration analysis process for choosing defined technological decisions, which mostly satisfy the rational process of creation constructive elements. In the result the system must form a unique subcomponent of technological decisions in a certain way:

where, TD1,…,TDn are the certain elements, placed in the chosen majority, which is actually a subcomponent of variety T for all technological decisions (TD), which are contained in the accompanied systems’ database;

n is the certain number of elements contained in the variety of technological decisions, which must fully satisfy the entrance data.


In the course of the work, the following practical results were obtained:

  • software module for recognizing the structure of the product’s CAD model;
  • classifiers TP for the manufacture of AT products, a method of forming a route for the manufacture of products;
  • software module for designing the route of manufacturing a product based on CAD model of the product;
  • formation of technical documentation: from design specifications to production documents of TP;
  • information support of the technological design process;
  • automation of development and standardization of TP based on CAD model.

The software module is designed in such a way as to most accurately repeat the actions of specialist and construction tree when designing in a graphical environment NX, while requiring a minimum set of actions from the designer. This became possible with the use of NX Open API software module for the development of automated product analysis system and subsequent design of assembly tooling. All data extracted or obtained as a result of analysis, according to the rules, are tied to the parameters of the assembly device; so, ideally, having only an electronic model of the product, it is possible to determine the optimal dimensions of the assembly device and the profile from which the frame is made, as well as select the type of support for the device. Information about the structural and technological composition of the product and the mating surfaces will determine the position of the base points, their number and distance between them.

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Для цитирования: Сазонова М.В. Разработка инновационной многокомпонентной системы автоматизированного проектирования изготовления изделий для передовой авиационной техники // Московский экономический журнал. 2022. № 3. URL: https://qje.su/ekonomicheskaya-teoriya/moskovskij-ekonomicheskij-zhurnal-3-2022-16/

© Сазонова М.В, 2022. Московский экономический журнал, 2022, № 3.