THE OIL INDUSTRY IN MOZAMBIQUE: BRIEF HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF OIL EXPLORATION IN MOZAMBIQUE
НЕФТЯНАЯ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТЬ МОЗАМБИКА: КРАТКИЙ ИСТОРИЧЕСКИЙ ОБЗОР РАЗВЕДКИ НЕФТИ В МОЗАМБИКЕ
Romanov Grigory Radionovich, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, supervisor, Irkutsk National Research Technical University, Irkutsk, Russia
Vilanculo Jercy Jossias, Irkutsk National Research Technical University, Irkutsk, Russia, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Романов Григорий Радионович, кандидат технический наук, доцент, научный руководитель, Иркутск Национальный Исследовательский Технический Университет, Иркутск, Россия
Виланкуло Жерси Жоссиаш, Иркутский национальный исследовательский технический университет, Иркутск, Россия, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract. The Mozambican oil and gas industry is currently going through a unique phase in its history, with the discovery and exploration of new reserves. with the latest gas discoveries in the north of the province of Mozambique, the country is in the possibility of entering the list of the 13 gas producing potential in the world, and the third gas producing power in Africa. The purpose of this article is to give a brief description from the moment of discovery of oil fields in Mozambique to the current state of development of the same. Focus will be given to the description of two basins, the Rovuma basin and the Mozambique basin, and in these basins only economically viable fields that already produce hydrocarbons will be considered.
Аннотация. Нефтегазовая промышленность Мозамбика в настоящее время переживает уникальный этап в своей истории с открытием и разведкой новых запасов. Благодаря последним открытиям газа на севере провинции Мозамбик, страна может войти в список из 13 газодобывающих стран мира и третьей газодобывающей державы в Африке. Цель данной статьи — дать краткое описание с момента открытия нефтяных месторождений в Мозамбике до текущего состояния их разработки. Основное внимание будет уделено описанию двух бассейнов, бассейна Ровума и бассейна Мозамбика, и в этих бассейнах будут рассматриваться только экономически жизнеспособные месторождения, которые уже производят углеводороды.
Keywords: Mozambique basin, Rovuma basin, oil and gas in Mozambique
Ключевые слова: бассейн Мозамбика, бассейн Ровума, нефть и газ Мозамбика
The occurrence of oil and gas in Mozambique is found in the sedimentary basins of Mozambique and Rovuma, located on land and at sea. The oil industry in Mozambique started in 1961 with the discovery of oil and gas in the sedimentary basin of Mozambique in the province of Inhambane, district of Pande and then in Temane and Buzi in 1962. The occurrence of hydrocarbons in the sedimentary basin of Rovuma was studied from there. 1980, with the first oil well on land, designated Rovuma 1, made in 1986, with the well showing a dry result. Several studies were carried out later, until in 2010 large discoveries were made from the Windjammer 2 well, followed by other considerable discoveries of natural gas, all of them in Areas 1 and 4. With these discoveries Mozambique is likely to become the third the largest gas producing power in Africa and one of the thirteen largest in the world.
After the discovery of hydrocarbons in the Mozambique Basin in 1962, further appraisal holes were subsequently drilled in Pande, onshore by Gulf Oil over four years. In the 90’s, nine appraisal wells were carried out in Pande onshore, led by ENH (Empresa Nacional de Hidrocarbonetos). The beginning of 2000 saw the entry of the South African multinational Sasol, which continued with the development of the grudja reservoir (Grudja 6, G-6- in the lower Cretaceous region) which began to be produced nine years later.(3)
36 kilometers southeast of the Pande field, the Upper Cretaceous reservoir is located in the Temane field (grudja 9, 9th and 9B). The production of this well started in 2004. (1)
About 15 kilometers east of the Temane field, in Inhasoro, is the Upper Cretaceous reservoir, with gas and light oil.
According to estimates made by Sasol, around 1.1 trillion cubic feet of gas and 1.8 barrels of condensate were produced in the pande field and 0.9 trillion cubic feet of gas and 5.6 million barrels in the Temane and about 0.75 trillion cubic feet of gas and 130 million barrels of oil in Inhassoro by the end of 2019. (6)
The reserves in the Mozambique basin are estimated at around 2.4 trillion cubic meters and an estimated investment of 1.4 billion dollars.(8)
The Rovuma Basin is one of the most relevant regions worldwide in the exploration of natural gas, being divided into 6 areas. in 2006, four areas were awarded in the Rovuma Basin, one on land and three offshore.
Since 2010, Mozambique has been witnessing a new scenario with regard to hydrocarbon research. With the beginning of the first gas discoveries in the Rovuma Basin, through the American brand Anadarko and later by the Italian brand ENI, whose resources are currently in the order of 180 trillion cubic feet of gas, Mozambique was placed on the list of the largest gas producers in the world. (1)
Area 1 offshore was leased to the American company Anadarko and its partners, Area 4 offshore to the Italian ENI and respective partners, Areas 3 and 6 to Petronas Carigali and the Onshore Area to Artumas, which later transferred part of its participation interest to Anadarko, becoming the operator of the area. Additionally, areas 2 and 5 were granted concessions in the Rovuma Basin to Norsk Hydro (later StatoilHydro). The National Hydrocarbon Company (ENH, E.P), represents the interests of the State in all concessions. (4)
A total of 85 trillion cubic feet of in situ natural gas is accounted for the straddling Prosperidade and Mamba reservoirs. However, the total reserves discovered in the two areas, are estimated to be around 170 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in situ. (3)
Later in 2019 Anadarko sold its assets to the French Multinational Total, which has since been leading the project.
With the gas discovered in the Rovuma Basin, 3 projects have been approved so far, namely the Golfinho/Tuna Project, to be carried out in Area 1 by Total E&P Mozambique Area 1 Limited, the Coral Sul FLNG Project to be implemented in Area 4 by Eni and the Rovuma LNG Project, also to be carried out in area 4 by Mozambique Rovuma LNG (MRV).
In addition to Total, which leads the Rovuma gas exploration project, several other multinationals are part of the project, including:
Galp Energy holds a 10% stake in the development plan for the project to produce and sell natural gas from Coral Sul, in Area 4, located in the Rovuma basin, in Mozambique. ExxonMobil holds a 25% indirect interest in Area 4, the Rovuma Basin in Cabo Delgado and leads the construction and operation of all future natural gas liquefaction facilities and related facilities in Area 4. As of December 2017, Eni and ExxonMobil closed the sale of an indirect 25% stake in Area 4, in the Rovuma Basin, through a sale of a 35.7% stake in Eni East Africa (EEA). Mozambique Rovuma Venture, S.p.A – MRV, was born from the union of three large multinational companies: The Italian Eni, the North American ExxonMobil and the Chinese CNPC. South Korean Kogas holds a 10% stake in Area 4 of the Rovuma Basin. CNPC is a partner in Area 4 of the Rovuma Basin, where the Chinese company acquired an indirect stake in 2013, through Eni. (2)
According to Standard Bank, the discovery of natural gas in the Rovuma basin, off the coast of Mozambique, has the potential to add USD 39 billion to the country’s economy by 2035.
The recent discoveries of gas in Mozambique, demonstrated that Mozambique presents very attractive conditions for extraction and production companies, in addition to recent discoveries in the Rovuma basin, there are other basins still under study that are very prone to hydrocarbon formation, such as the Zambezi basin. studies carried out report the occurrence of hydrocarbons along the entire coast of Mozambique, and that in some areas the probability that these reservoirs are economically viable is high. Recent gas discoveries in Mozambique could significantly impact Mozambique’s economic development as it is predicted that with the FLNG project the country will raise around $2 billion a year.
- Calculation of water saturation in low resistivity gas reservoirs and pay-zones of the Cretaceous Grudja Formation, onshore Mozambique basin (Vincent Mashabaab Wlady slaw Altermannb).
- Development of the Mozambique and Ruvuma sedimentary basins, offshore Mozambique (SalmanI.Abdula).
- Petroleum systems of the deepwater Mozambique Basin (Malcolm Francis, Graham Milne, Kristijan (Duplo) Kornpihl, Sugandha Tewari, Deepak Rathee, David Barlass and Katharine Broadbent).
- Extended Abstract: Petroleum Systems and Prospects in the Deepwater Mozambique Channel (Robert G. Bertangne).
- https://superbrands.co.mz/o-avanco-da-exploracao-e-producao-de-oleo-e-gas-natural-em-mocambique-contribuicao-das-marcas-que-operam-no- pais /.
- Расчет водонасыщенности в газовых коллекторах с низким удельным сопротивлением и продуктивных зонах меловой формации Груджа, прибрежный бассейн Мозамбика (Винсент Машабааб Влади Слав Альтерманнб).
- Освоение осадочных бассейнов Мозамбика и Рувума на шельфе Мозамбика (Г. Салман И. Абдула).
- Нефтяные системы глубоководного бассейна Мозамбика (Малкольм Фрэнсис, Грэм Милн, Кристиджан (Дупло) Корнпихл, Суганда Тевари, Дипак Рати, Дэвид Барласс и Кэтрин Бродбент).
- Расширенная аннотация: Нефтяные системы и перспективы в глубоководном Мозамбикском проливе (Роберт Г. Бертанг).
- https://www.eni.com/en-IT/media/press-release/2021/11/coral-sul-flng-readysail-away-mozambiques-rovuma-basin-area-4-first-development. html
Для цитирования: Романов Г.Р., Виланкуло Ж.Ж. The oil industry in Mozambique: brief historical overview of oil exploration in Mozambique // Московский экономический журнал. 2021. № 12. URL:
© Романов Г.Р., Виланкуло Ж.Ж., 2021. Московский экономический журнал, 2021, № 12.