DIFFERENTIATION OF THE SUBJECTS OF PACIFIC RUSSIA IN TERMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS OF INDUSTRIAL AND NATURAL RELATIONS
The work was carried out within the framework of the state task of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (No. AAAA-A16-116110810013-5) with partial financial support from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research within the framework of scientific projects of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (No. 20 — 55 — 18010 Bolg_a).
Stepanko Nataliia Grigorievna, Ph.D., associate professor, senior researcher, Pacific Institute of Geography Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. The purpose of this work is to assess the existing and possible nature management in the future and, as a result, the ecological state of the territory of Pacific Russia in order to adjust the prospects for further development. The result is the zoning of the territory according to the indicator of environmental friendliness of industrial and natural relations, which are essentially nature management. The paper analyzes the existing main types of economic activities in the context of the regions of Pacific Russia that determine the specifics of the region, systematizes the directions of their impact on the environment, as well as the consequences of these impacts. This study also takes into account the results of earlier calculations of the index of economic sufficiency of environmental protection activities and its dynamics. The analysis of the main investment projects in the regions of Pacific Russia and the resulting differentiation of regions allows us to conclude that in three of the six regions, when implementing major projects that focus on extractive and manufacturing industries, technogenic impact and its consequences can significantly worsen the existing ecological and economic imbalance and the socio-economic situation in the regions (population outflow, pollution and environmental destruction, accumulation of solid waste, etc.). Since the main task of the formation, development and functioning of various territorial natural and economic systems is the balance of conflicting interests of the components of these systems, in which the equivalence of economic, environmental and social interests should be recognized, taking into account territorial features, the main problem is the coordination of conflicting requirements of different subsystems that make up them. The goals of an economic nature will probably remain leading for a long time, and the tasks of rational nature management will be subordinate, although important. Therefore, it becomes important and relevant to determine the existing ecological situation in order to choose the most balanced scenario for the further development of territories. The existing programs of socio-economic development of the regions of Pacific Russia should be adjusted in terms of economic feasibility and environmental conditionality.
Keywords: Pacific Russia, industrial and natural relations, environmental friendliness, economic sufficiency index, zoning
Introduction. In recent years, there has been a greater interest in the Far Eastern regions – part of the Pacific Russia. Mining is the main industry in the structure of industrial production in most regions of the Russian Far East (RFE), while manufacturing plays the key role only in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories. Other important factors are the transport network, availability of communication systems and settlement types, which differ from region to region. Having analyzed the main statistical environmental and economic data, we concluded that despite a visible increase in many economic indicators (the index of industrial production, including mining, manufacturing, investments in environmental protection, and the rational use of natural resources) in most regions, the indicators of the negative impact of economic activities on the environment are decreasing.
Obviously, the regions in the Russian Far East differ from each other. However, in general, all regions, except for the Primorsky Territory, demonstrated ecological and economic improvements. In the Primorsky Territory, there was an increase in the indicators of air pollution, discharge of polluted wastewater and forest fires, along with declining economic indices, which implies the remaining disproportion in the relationship between production and nature and inefficienct environmental protection in the region.
However, the ecological situation in the regions is not favorable, and this is due to the current economic structure, its impacts and consequences accumulated over the previous years.
To determine the most acceptable, economically and environmentally sound scenario, one should clearly examine both the current and possible environmental and economic situation during the implementation of the planned production. For this purpose, we zoned the territory of Pacific Russia.
Materials and Methods. In the course of the study, official statistical materials of Rosstat, literary scientific sources were used, and methods of statistical analysis and mapping were used to analyze the current situation. To obtain data for zoning the territory, the method of determining the coordinate (indicator) in the n-dimensional Euclidean space was used, which makes it possible to obtain an integral indicator (coordinate) from the n-th number of indicators measured in different units. It allows you to further track changes in the object under study as a whole, as well as its individual components, thus tracking which parameter influenced the change in the state of the object.
Research progress. The existing territorial and production structure and environmental protection activities underlie the effectiveness of the relationship between production and nature (which actually condition nature management). Production-natural relations (which essentially determine nature management), their rationality and efficiency are formed by the existing territorial-production structure and environmental activities. The territorial binding of these structures, which is the basis for human life, is complex, multilayered, multicomponent and differentiated both in terms of individual components and various intercomponent links . These two components are the basis of the efficiency and rational use of natural resources and measures aimed at prevention and elimination of the negative industrial impact on the environment [2-4 end ett.]. In the Pacific Russia regions, the pollution of air and water resources is the main technogenic factor that determines the ecological situation and affects the living conditions of the people. The indicator of total pollution per person per year is one of the limitations on the operation of the enterprise with the largest impact or the entire economic structure of the territory, since it has negative environmental and social effects and badly affects people’s health.
Environmental protection in these regions is extremely poor. Both the financing of the activities aimed at the reduction of the negative industrial impact on the environment and the costs of environmental protection (EP) or the rational use of natural resources remain stably low and insufficient. The real investment in environmental protection is disproportionately small compared to the economic optimum. This is also evidenced by the index of economic sufficiency of environmental protection (IES) .
Considering the prospects for the economic development of the Far East as part of the Pacific Russia, one can note the key role of the extractive industries, since the main projects are connected with the development of natural resources (the coastal zone and shelf). In addition to the current territorial and economic structures in the Pacific Russia regions, in the future, the government plans to develop such economic activities as coal mining, power industry, mining and processing (MPPs and MMCs), metallurgy, ship repairing, tourism, gas production and processing (LNG), reconstruction of ports, building of new port stations and transshipment terminals, as well as tourism. Undoubtedly, such development can stimulate the economic recovery in the regions. At the same time, given the current environmental situation and the fact that there are almost no effective measures for environmental protection, rational use of natural resources, or preventive measures (for example, modern methods of cleaning, disposal, and reclamation), the ecological situation and the imbalance in the environmental and economic relations will worsen [2,3,6].
Dwelling on the earlier studies and the obtained indicators, we zoned Pacific Russia regarding the sustainability of the relationships between production and nature.
For this, we estimated integral (complex) indicators by determining the coordinate (indicator) in the n-dimensional Euclidean space. This method allowed us to select an integral indicator (coordinate) from the n-th number of indicators measured in different units and then track changes in the studied object as a whole and in its individual components, thus identifying the parameter that led to a change in the state of the object .
At present, the relationship between production and nature (nature management) in the regions of Pacific Russia reflect the existing production structure. The pandemic decreased the technogenic impact, although this mainly occurred in the regions with developed food processing, light industry, social infrastructure (cafes, restaurants, cinemas, and public transport), and partly agriculture.
We estimated an increase in the technogenic load by analyzing the number and hazard class of the main projects to be implemented (construction of enterprises). The indicators obtained by calculations revealed that most of the considered regions belonged to the zone of a moderate increase in the anthropogenic impact. We can predict a significant increase in the technogenic load in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories. This is due to the construction of new and the development of old shipbuilding and ship repair industries, the processing industries (mining and processing plants and concentrating plants), as well as construction industry enterprises. According to the calculated indicators, the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug demonstrated a slight increase in the anthropogenic impact. However, considering the natural and climatic conditions in the region with its fragile ecosystems, even a slight technogenic impact may cause serious, even irreversible, consequences. Thus, we put Chukotka Autonomous Okrug into the zone of moderate increase in the technogenic impact. Due to the specifics of the region and the projects planned, the government should consider the expediency and safety of these activities  (Fig.).
Conclusion. Thus, taking into account the planned development of the Pacific Russia regions, one can note the prospects for economic growth both in a particular region and in the Russian Far East in general. At the same time, due to severe natural conditions in some regions and present environmental and social problems, as well as inadequacy (or absence) of effective and relevant environmental protection measures and programs, further development will increase the man-made impact on the territory. As a result, the ecological situation will worsen significantly [10, 3, 4]. To obtain a more balanced model for further development of the Pacific Russia regions, one should adjust regional development programs according to the specifics of the area and existing environmental problems. The government should develop not only industrial and agricultural projects, but establish environmental protection and resource-saving enterprises. These activities should be financed and supported at the federal level, so that the regions can maintain and preserve natural resources and create favorable conditions for people living in there.
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Для цитирования: Stepanko N.G. Differentiation of the subjects of Pacific Russia in terms of environmental friendliness of industrial and natural relations // Московский экономический журнал. 2022. № 11. URL: https://qje.su/rekreacia-i-turizm/moskovskij-ekonomicheskij-zhurnal-11-2022-34/
© Stepanko N.G., 2022. Московский экономический журнал, 2022, № 11.