A TOOL FOR SHAPING SUSTAINABILITY IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY
Заверюха Анастасия Сергеевна, Финансовый университет при Правительстве РФ, firstname.lastname@example.org
Summary: Efficiency (from the English. Effect ) – achievement of any certain results with the minimum possible costs or obtaining the maximum possible volume of production from a given amount of resources. That is, in the most General sense, effectiveness is the degree to which a goal is achieved or the ratio of the result to the goal.
The effectiveness of the system is the property of the system to fulfill the goal in the given conditions of use and with a certain quality. Performance indicators characterize the degree of adaptation of the system to perform its tasks and are generalizing indicators of the optimal functioning of the system.
In the analysis of the concept of efficiency it is advisable to use the development of economic science, which is considered most fully and comprehensively.
Economic efficiency is about maximizing the benefits of available resources. To do this, the benefits and costs must be constantly compared, that is, a prerequisite for the effectiveness of rational behavior, which is to strive for maximum profit (result) at minimum cost. Economic efficiency can mainly be reduced to financial indicators.
Eco-economic efficiency – the availability to realize the goal in the most environmentally friendly way (or to implement an environmental project or event), which is economically feasible and has a positive economic result (profit).
Keyword: Social requirements, economic security, sustainable development, progress, society.
Following the formulation of the goal, the problem of assessing the effectiveness of indicators of sustainable development is to determine the criteria for compliance with this goal and the corresponding indicators of their assessment, quantitative or qualitative.
Finally, the most difficult task is to assess the cost-benefit ratio to the level of achievement of the goal and its significance.
It should be noted that now the regulatory and methodological framework for assessing the effectiveness of the implementation of sustainable development indicators is practically not created. At the same time, since the relevant indicative systems are introduced primarily within the framework of the formation of sustainable development management mechanisms, their effectiveness can be indirectly determined by analyzing the effectiveness of such management [2, p. 32].
Management effectiveness is generally defined as the achievement of a real and socially useful specific management goal with minimal resources and management energy in the optimal time, taking into account the circumstances of the external and internal nature.
Sustainable development management aims to achieve and maintain such a state of a certain socio-economic and natural system, which can be characterized by the definition of «sustainable development».
Management of sustainable development of the territory (region) requires the implementation of certain phased management actions:
- assessment of the state and definition of the conceptual framework for sustainable development of the relevant territory;
- strategic planning (definition of sustainable development strategy);
- strategic forecasting (determination of forecast indicators of sustainable development in accordance with the strategy);
- operational management and monitoring;
- assessment of the status of implementation of the relevant strategy and strategic planning for the next period.
At each of the above stages, indicators of sustainable development carry out appropriate functions and to achieve proper efficiency in their implementation must meet certain requirements [4, p. 68].
Assessment of the state of sustainable development requires the formation of a system of representative indicators that can provide :
- comparative analysis of the level of «sustainability» of development for each of the main components (economic, environmental, social);
- analysis of the level of integrated «constancy» of the region’s development in comparison with other regions;
- identification of key «weak» links that critically affect the level of stability of the region.
For a comparative analysis of the main components of sustainable development of the region and its correlation with other regions, it seems appropriate to use the relevant aggregated indicators – economic, social and environmental development indices, methodologically defined at the international level, special indices (human development, environmental sustainability, true savings, etc.) and the integrated sustainable development index (currently, several methodological options for its calculation have been developed).
At the same time, a more detailed analysis aimed at identifying the «weak points» of regional development requires the use of more specific and narrowly specialized indicators. To this end, it seems appropriate to use a system of indicators covering the main substantive aspects of sustainable development in each of its three basic areas.
For strategic planning and strategic forecasting, the key task is a comprehensive assessment of all components of sustainable development and identification of appropriate tasks both for each of them and for certain integral characteristics of the region’s development. Therefore, at this stage, the most effective integrated assessment systems are seen, which include both simple indicators and some aggregated indicators and are structurally formed according to the principles of «theme-problem-indicator» and/or «goals-tasks-indicator» [6, p. 87]. In principle, the key tasks of strategic planning and forecasting can be effectively solved and model system indicators «the pressure-stoneacre». But so far, the practical application of this approach «in its pure form» has revealed significant technical and informational difficulties associated with the need to promptly obtain, process, interpret and analyze large amounts of information.
A separate approach requires the formation of the use of indicator systems to monitor the status of implementation-
Regarding monitoring, strategic and operational monitoring should be singled out.
Strategic monitoring involves monitoring the dynamics of changes in the state of the main components of sustainable development and correlating them with the relevant strategic objectives and plans. Therefore, for the implementation of strategic monitoring suitable systems are seen, which include aggregated indices of the main components of sustainable development and indicators and indicators on the basis of which these indices are calculated .
Operational monitoring requires, first of all, tracking the dynamics of changes in more «narrow» areas, especially those that are critical for assessing the sustainable development of a particular region. For a representative assessment of such changes in addition to the standard set of indicators, it is necessary to use special indicators that reflect the specifics of the structure of sustainable development of this region and make it possible to quickly monitor the state of Affairs in its «critical points».
Direct management of sustainable development of the region can be carried out both by adjusting the current plans and short-term forecasts, and through the adoption of direct management measures aimed at normalizing critical situations arising in certain areas and sectors of activity and have a negative impact on the sustainable development of the region. Therefore, the requirements to the system of evaluation of regional sustainable development for the implementation of direct control include the wording of the strategic and operational monitoring.
That is, for the implementation of monitoring and measures of direct management of sustainable development of the region, the most effective are the assessment systems of key (basic), additional and specific indicators. The first reflect the most important parameters of regional development – the growth rate of GRP, the dynamics of investment in fixed capital, changes in production in the main sectors, the scale of anthropogenic impact on the environment, the level of poverty, true savings, the human development index, and the like. The second allows us to assess the quality of regional macroeconomic policy – the nature of the economy, the technological level, income differentiation, the state of the labor force and the like. Still others make it possible to take into account the relevant regional specifics [10, с. 80].
A separate and very important group of goals (functions) assigned to the system of indicative assessment of sustainable development of the region are the actual information goals. They provide for the rapid and systematic provision of accessible, understandable and representative information on the state of sustainable development to the public and to officials who influence management decisions. To perform these functions, the relevant indicators must first meet the requirements of simplicity of perception and unambiguity of interpretation.
Informing the public and officials about the status and dynamics of sustainable development can be effectively achieved through a reduced list of aggregates, most of which are to some extent generally acceptable, methodologically defined at the international level and «cross-cutting», i.e. used at different territorial levels.
In some cases, when there is a significant imbalance of development in the region due to the presence of certain very problematic enterprises, industries, facilities and the like, as a General information it is advisable to use special indicators that reflect the state and dynamics of changes in such problematic parts of the relevant territorial system.
From the above analysis it becomes clear that there is no single correct decision on the effectiveness of a particular type of indicators, structure or model of the system for assessing the sustainability of regional development.
Since the concept of «sustainable development» is integrative and covers a very wide range of goals, objectives and areas of activity, the requirements for the system of assessments of the level of sustainability are very differentiated depending on the specific purpose, functions and specifics of the relevant territorial entity .
If we consider the assessment of the sustainable development of the region in a broad sense, there is a place in the relevant system of indicators for almost all their types, types, structures and models. Separately:
High level of aggregation indices – the index of sustainable development, indices of the main components of sustainable development, generally accepted «international» indices – should be used for:
- comparative analysis of the state of sustainable development and its components in different regions;
- analysis of the ratio of the state of the main components of sustainable development within one region;
- analysis of the hierarchical structure of sustainable development of territorial entities of different taxonomic levels.
According to this specificity, highly aggregated indices are effective in terms of:
- strategic planning and strategic forecasting;
- strategic monitoring, i.e. assessment of the dynamics and level of achievement of strategic goals and objectives;
- current monitoring – in terms of the ratio of the dynamics of changes in more local indicators of sustainable development with its General state;
- informing the public and officials about the state and dynamics of changes in the sustainable development of the region.
Indicators and indices of low degree of aggregation is advisable to use for:
- identification of «weak links» of regional development;
- determination of the specifics of sustainable development of a particular region and operational monitoring of the state of Affairs in its «critical points».
Accordingly, such indicators are effective in terms of:
- performance of individual functions of current monitoring and operational management;
- informing the public and officials about the state and dynamics of changes in the problem areas specific to the region.
Finally, simple indicators should be used as a single mutually agreed system for:
- detailed assessment of the state of sustainable development in its main areas;
- assessment of the dynamics of sustainable development in its main areas;
- identification of «weak links» of regional sustainable development and operational monitoring of the state of Affairs in «critical points»;
- calculation of aggregate indicators of sustainable development.
That is, the system of simple indicators can be effectively used in the implementation of all stages and functions of assessing the sustainable development of the region:
- directly – for current planning, forecasting, monitoring and preparation of management decisions;
- indirectly (as a basis for the calculation of aggregates) – for strategic planning and forecasting, strategic monitoring and public awareness and officials.
From the point of view of assessing the effectiveness of great importance is the structural construction of an appropriate system of indicators of regional sustainable development.
From the above analysis it follows that the most applicable and effective from the point of view of the balance of «costs» and «result» are now structures of the type «theme – problem – indicator» (as an option – «theme – subtheme – indicator») and «goals – tasks – indicator». These approaches allow at the necessary level and with relatively uncritical costs to ensure the implementation of almost all the main objectives (functions) of regional sustainable development management [3, p. 72].
A model-based approach «pressure-state-response» should be used to evaluate individual components of the regional sustainable development on which the possibility of operational obtaining the necessary amounts of information to make calculations on the corresponding model. Development and implementation of evaluation models for the TSR remain highly relevant primarily for the implementation of a comprehensive in-depth research in relation to sustainable development in individual regions. It is the model approach that allows the most thorough and accurate monitoring of the state, dynamics and interrelations of all substantive aspects of sustainable development, conducting in-depth scientific analysis to determine statistical and substantive laws and formulating methodological and methodological approaches for the implementation of appropriate management activities.
Separately, it should be noted that both the main methodological approaches to the formation of regional sustainable development assessment systems, the most used in the Russian Federation (the system of key (basic), additional and special indicators) and in Ukraine (the»pyramid-step» formation of aggregated indicators in the main areas of assessment – economic, environmental and social) are acceptable in terms of the effectiveness of implementation. In fact, they can complement each other and be used within a single system of indicators for assessing the sustainable development of the region.  At the same time, the «pyramid» structure of indicators and indices can form most of the «key» indicators used in strategic planning, forecasting, monitoring, etc., Additional and special indicators should be formed in accordance with the requirements of interregional analysis and the specifics of the structure of sustainable development of a particular region.
The «embeddedness» of the system of national and international statistics and its direct link with the system of national planning and forecasting is crucial for the effectiveness of the regional sustainable development assessment system.
In terms of practical use, especially in operational terms, the calculation of indicators of sustainable development on the basis of standard statistics is a prerequisite for the proper effectiveness of indicators of sustainable development. Any «deviation» from this principle immediately critically increases the cost (material, physical, psychological, etc.) to obtain the necessary information.
Finally, in order for information on sustainable development of the region to be properly used in the management system, it must be «in demand» in the development of planning and forecasting documents provided for by the current legislative and regulatory framework. After all, it is on these documents that the practical implementation of the government of the state and its individual regions is based. And if the system of assessment of regional sustainable development is developed without taking into account the relevant requirements, it can have purely scientific value, and in a practical sense, its use will be virtually impossible [7, с. 900].
Briefly summarizing the review of the main approaches to assessing the effectiveness of the implementation of sustainable development indicators, the following should be noted:
1. Normative and methodological support for assessing the effectiveness of the implementation of sustainable development indicators has not yet been developed. Despite this, analyze their performance from the point of view of assessment of efficiency of sustainable development management of the region. At the same time, at this stage, the use of quantitative performance indicators is quite problematic and the corresponding analysis can be carried out according to qualitative criteria.
2. To ensure the effective implementation of a set of functions (goals) of sustainable development management in the region, the appropriate system of indicative assessment should include simple indicators and indices of different levels of aggregation. The use of reduced systems and individual aggregate indices can be effective only in terms of solving individual local problems, for example: comparative characteristics of the level of sustainable development and its main components for different regions, informing the public about the main indicators of regional sustainable development, and the like.
3. From the point of view of achieving maximum efficiency, the structure of the system of indicators for assessing the sustainable development of the region should be formed mainly on the principles of «theme (problem)-indicator» and/or «goals-objectives-indicator». A model-based approach «pressure-state-response» should be used to evaluate individual components of the regional sustainable development on which the possibility of operational obtaining the necessary amounts of information to make calculations on the corresponding model.
4. It is advisable to include key (basic) indicators and additional and special indicators in the system of indicators for assessing regional sustainable development. The first may be indices of varying degrees of aggregation, calculated on the basis of a system of indicators for the main areas of sustainable development. Additional and specific indicators are determined based on the objectives of interregional analysis and the specifics of the structure of sustainable development of a particular region.
5. Systems of indicators for assessing regional sustainable development should be based on indicators and international statistics and be directly linked to the system and the basic documents for planning and forecasting national and regional socio-economic and environmental development.
Also in recent years, there is a reassessment of the theory of transaction integration. Sandholtz and stone Mir proposed a General integration theory, which is based on the study of the process of exchange between transnational actors, the role of supranational organizations, the processes of institutionalization through the introduction of new rules . New approaches in transactional theory were aimed not only at identifying favorable conditions for the development of integration, but also to study the relationship of political interests, the use of common rules, the activities of supranational institutions, which are the main factors of this development. It should be noted that this approach is somewhat reminiscent of neofunctionalism theory.
In our opinion, the dynamics of the development of European integration in recent years most fully reflects the approach based on the concept of transnational exchange. Exchange which reflects the economic relations between agents of different countries associated with the movement of any tangible and intangible assets. The most important forms of transnational exchange are thus international trade in goods and services, capital flows, trade in stock instruments and currency values, labour migration, trade in technology, joint ventures and transnational corporations, the sale of trademarks and other intangible assets, and joint research and development. The ability of supranational structures to meet the requirements of exchange participants and introduce its rules determines the direction of further development of integration. This approach assumes that supranational governance should be in the interest of firms, social groups or individuals involved in transnational exchange and benefit from the introduction of European regulation instead of national regulation. The development of transnational exchange requires the replacement of national regulation with supranational regulation, which forces national governments and EU institutions to develop and implement such regulation. Consequently, the level of development of supranational governance depends on the intensity of transnational exchange in a particular sector in a certain period.
While transnational exchange is rapidly developing in a particular sector, it is increasingly inefficient for governments to maintain a national type of regulation. Pressure on governments to adapt their policies to the new situation is growing, leading to the development of supranational governance. The introduction of General legislation contributes to the further development of transnational exchange in this sector and, through transfusion effects, in other sectors. There is an internal dynamics of the integration process. Intergovernmental negotiations and policy development are becoming an integrated part of the process, the main driving force of which is the development of transnational society, the integration policy of supranational organizations and the expansion of the joint legislative framework.
Governments certainly have an interest in integration. They are looking for ways to increase their autonomy vis-à-vis national social groups and bodies, as well as to increase their control over resources. Governments may resist supranational governance processes, but in doing so they have a negative impact on the welfare of those involved in transnational transactions. Governments can also slow down integration processes or direct them towards self-interest. But governments do not have full control over the overall political process and its outcome.
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